Class 12 What is Charge and Different Methods of Charging

What is Charge and Methods of Charging 

What is Charge

“Electric Charge is the property of subatomic particles that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electric and magnetic field.”.

Methods of charging

The process of supplying the electric charge (electrons) to an object or losing the electric charge (electrons) from an object is called charging. An uncharged object can be charged in different ways

Charging by friction

Charging by conduction

Charging by induction

  • Charging by friction

When an object is rubbed over another object, the electrons get transferred from one object to another. This transfer of electrons takes place due to friction between the two objects. The object that transfers electrons loses negative charge (electrons) and the object that accepts electrons gains negative charge (electrons).

Hence, the object that gains extra electrons becomes negatively charged and the object that loses electrons becomes positively charged. Thus, the two objects get charged by friction. The charge obtained on the two objects is called friction charge. This method of charging an object is called electrification by friction.

  • Charging by conduction

The process of charging the uncharged object by bringing it in contact with another charged object is called charging by conduction.

A charged object has unequal number of negative (electrons) and positive charges (protons). Hence, when a charged object is brought in contact with the uncharged conductor, the electrons get transferred from charged object to the conductor.

  • Charging by induction

The process of charging the uncharged object by bringing another charged object near to it, but not touching it, is called charging by induction.

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CBSE Class 12 Chapter 1 Electric Charges and Fields

Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. 

Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field.

Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside)

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